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Technical Papers

The PHANTOM project partners have presented technical papers at international conferences related to the technologies being developed in the project. Click on the titles of the following papers to download or access.

Title: Development of Distributed Simulation Environment for Security-Critical Technological Objects by Means of Microservices (Case Study for Underground Mine Ventilation)

Conference: The 8th International Conference on Emerging Networks and Systems Intelligence (EMERGING 2016)
Authors: Alexey Cheptsov
Abstract: Modeling and Simulation are well-established techniques used in science and technology for prediction, analysis, and evaluation of properties of various complex dynamic systems. The actual trend in the simulation technology is the integration of models into the production automation and control systems, which aims to ensure a higher level of control and a better quality of the decisions made. The model-aided support is of a substantial importance for security-critical systems, such as underground mine ventilation networks, in which the risk of a spontaneous explosion of hazardous gases (like methane) is very high and might cause an enormous damage to human and technical resources. We discuss a possible approach to perform simulation closely to the controlled objects by leveraging low-power, embedded hardware.

Title: GPIOCP: Timing-accurate general purpose I/O controller for many-core real-time systems
Conference: Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE 2017)
Authors: Zhe Jiang, Neil C. Audsley
Abstract: Modern SoC / NoC chips often provide General-Purpose I/O (GPIO) pins for connecting devices that are not directly integrated within the chip. Timing accurate control of devices connected to GPIO is often required within embedded real-time systems — ie. I/O operations should occur at exact times, with minimal error, neither being significantly early or late. This is difficult to achieve due to the latencies and contentions present in architecture, between CPU instigating the I/O operation, and the device connected to the GPIO — software drivers, RTOS, buses and bus contentions all introduce significant variable latencies before the command reaches the device. This is compounded in NoC devices utilising a mesh interconnect between CPUs and I/O devices. The contribution of this paper is a resource efficient programmable I/O controller, termed the GPIO Command Processor (GPIOCP), that permits applications to instigate complex sequences of I/O operations at an exact time, so achieving timing-accuracy at a single clock cycle level. Also, I/O operations can be programmed to occur at some point in the future, periodically, or reactively. The GPIOCP is a parallel I/O controller, supporting cycle level timing accuracy across several devices connected to GPIO simultaneously. The GPIOCP exploits the tradeoff between placing using a full sequential CPU to control each GPIO connected device, which achieves some timing accuracy at high resource cost; and poor timing-accuracy achieved where the application CPU controls the device remotely. The GPIOCP has efficient hardware cost compared to CPU approaches, with the additional benefits of total timing accuracy (CPU solutions do not provide this in general) and parallel control of many I/O devices.

Title: A Survey on Model-Based Testing Tools for Test Case Generation
Conference: 4th International Conference on Tools and Methods of Program Analysis
Authors: Wenbin Li, Franck Le Gall, Naum Spaseski
Abstract: Compared to traditional testing methods, Model-Based Testing (MBT) is able to manage and accomplish testing tasks in a cheaper and more efficient way. A number of MBT tools are developed to support MBT activities in the past few years, whereas the characteristics of these tools largely vary from one to another and users without prior knowledge can hardly choose appropriate tools. This paper aims at providing a survey on the emerging MBT tools following a list of criteria emphasizing on test case generation while illustrating aspects of test data and test script generation. Firstly, we introduce the general MBT process for a common understanding; we then present a list of criteria oriented to test case generation covering fours dimensions i.e., model specification, test generation, test description and overall support; following our proposed criteria, we survey and characterize the emerging MBT tools; at last we summarize the current limitations based on our survey and shed light on further directions of MBT tool development.

Title: Quality Assurance for Component-based Systems in Embedded Environments
Conference: IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things, Embedded Systems and Communications (IINTEC2018)
Authors: Wenbin Li, Franck Le Gall, Panagiotis Vlacheas, Alexey Cheptsov
Abstract: Quality assurance for embedded systems is challenging to the heterogeneity, connectivity and constructivity of environments. In this paper, we present the quality assurance design and implementation driven by model-based testing (MBT) for component-based applications in embedded environments. The work is conducted within the EU H2020 project PHANTOM, and the quality assurance in PHANTOM consists of two stages, i.e., early validation and test execution, for both functional and non-functional verification and validation. Early validation stage is carried out in parallel with application development without executing applications to eliminate early design defects, while test execution stages involves functional and non-functional testing, which start in parallel with the application development and end with the execution of test cases against systems under test. All activities are applied to three industry use cases upon hardware agnostic platforms brought by PHANTOM technology, and the results show that combining early validation and test execution enables early and thorough defect detections all along development lifecycle and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of quality assurance.

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